Gun rights groups like the National Rifle Association said that conservative Justice Antonin Scalia’s death Saturday puts gun rights on the line.
In fact, as you will see below, a new survey has found that there is nowhere on the entire planet where the average wage earner is making enough money to live “the American Dream”. Once upon a time, the United States had the largest and most prosperous middle class in the history of the world, but now the middle class makes up a minority of the population, 51 percent of all American workers make less than $30,000 a year, and poverty is growing rapidly. The American Dream is essentially dead, and even the mainstream media is starting to figure this out.
Just today, someone sent me a U.S. News & World Report article entitled “Even Americans Can’t Afford the American Dream”.
Researchers ultimately found there isn’t a country on the map whose average wage earner could afford all of these expenses together. What’s more, average consumers in Saudi Arabia and Oman are actually closer to financing these socioeconomic goals than the average American. The average Saudi household would only need to see monthly salaries climb by about $74 to realize the American dream in their own country, while U.S. workers would need hundreds of dollars in additional income.
Isn’t that alarming?
The American Dream is out of the grasp of most people living in America, and there isn’t anywhere else on the globe where a majority of the workers are experiencing it either.
That same article also contained a few other facts that are truly sobering…
“After more than four decades of serving as the nation’s economic majority, the American middle class is now matched in number by those in the economic tiers above and below it,” the Pew report said. “Since 1971, each decade has ended with a smaller share of adults living in middle-income households than at the beginning of the decade, and no single decade stands out as having triggered or hastened the decline in the middle.”
Another recent study from the Brookings Institution found that median wages fell in 80 percent of America’s largest metros between 2009 and 2014.
The middle class has been shrinking for a very long time, and now that collapse is accelerating.
So what is the solution?
Well, CNN is reporting that a new survey has discovered that middle class Americans feel that the federal government should do more to help them out…
Hey federal government! The middle class would like some help, too.
A majority of Americans say the feds don’t do enough to help the middle class, according to a Pew Research Center survey released Thursday. The middle class is more neglected than the poor or children, survey respondents said.
More socialism for everyone!
That will solve all of our problems, right?
Of course not. Actually, if we had a much smaller government that would probably go a long way toward fixing things. This is hard to believe, but in 2015 Americans spent more on taxes than on food, clothing and housing combined.
If the federal government would just stop taxing us into oblivion, a lot more of us would do okay all on our own.
These days, so many families are just scraping by from month to month. As the cost of living continues to move steadily upward, many Americans find themselves forced to go into debt just to cover basic expenses.
And our society actually encourages all of us to go into debt, and so we think that it is okay. But many of us end up digging financial holes that we never get out of. This is especially true for a lot of young people today. One recent survey found that 68 percent of all Americans had destroyed their credit before the age of 30.
Of course then we hear on the news that the economy is “not growing fast enough” because consumers are not spending enough money.
The experts that are telling people this don’t seem to understand that most consumers are tapped out at this point.
You can’t get blood from a rock, and as a result a lot of retailers are really hurting right now. The following list of store closures comes from my recent article about the ongoing retail apocalypse…
-Wal-Mart is closing 269 stores, including 154 inside the United States.
-K-Mart is closing down more than two dozen stores over the next several months.
-J.C. Penney will be permanently shutting down 47 more stores after closing a total of 40 stores in 2015.
-Macy’s has decided that it needs to shutter 36 stores and lay off approximately 2,500 employees.
-The Gap is in the process of closing 175 stores in North America.
-Aeropostale is in the process of closing 84 stores all across America.
-Finish Line has announced that 150 stores will be shutting down over the next few years.
-Sears has shut down about 600 stores over the past year or so, but sales at the stores that remain open continue to fall precipitously.
When I was a young boy, I think that you could have said that the American Dream was still alive and well in the United States.
But after decades of exceedingly foolish decisions, things have completely changed and the middle class is dying right in front of our eyes.
If you doubt this, please see the list of statistics that I have shared below that comes from one of my previous articles…
#1 This week we learned that for the first time ever recorded, middle class Americans make up a minority of the population. But back in 1971, 61 percent of all Americans lived in middle class households.
#2 According to the Pew Research Center, the median income of middle class households declined by 4 percent from 2000 to 2014.
#3 The Pew Research Center has also found that median wealth for middle class households dropped by an astounding 28 percent between 2001 and 2013.
#4 In 1970, the middle class took home approximately 62 percent of all income. Today, that number has plummeted to just 43 percent.
#5 There are still 900,000 fewer middle class jobs in America than there were when the last recession began, but our population has gotten significantly larger since that time.
#6 According to the Social Security Administration, 51 percent of all American workers make less than $30,000 a year.
#7 For the poorest 20 percent of all Americans, median household wealth declined from negative 905 dollars in 2000 to negative 6,029 dollars in 2011.
#8 A recent nationwide survey discovered that 48 percent of all U.S. adults under the age of 30 believe that “the American Dream is dead”.
#9 At this point, the U.S. only ranks 19th in the world when it comes to median wealth per adult.
#10 Traditionally, entrepreneurship has been one of the engines that has fueled the growth of the middle class in the United States, but today the level of entrepreneurship in this country is sitting at an all-time low.
#11 If you can believe it, the 20 wealthiest people in this country now have more money than the poorest 152 million Americans combined.
#12 The top 0.1 percent of all American families have about as much wealth as the bottom 90 percent of all American families combined.
#13 If you have no debt and you also have ten dollars in your pocket, that gives you a greater net worth than about 25 percent of all Americans.
#14 The number of Americans that are living in concentrated areas of high poverty has doubled since the year 2000.
#15 An astounding 48.8 percent of all 25-year-old Americans still live at home with their parents.
#16 According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 49 percent of all Americans now live in a home that receives money from the government each month, and nearly 47 million Americans are living in poverty right now.
#17 In 2007, about one out of every eight children in America was on food stamps. Today, that number is one out of every five.
#18 According to Kathryn J. Edin and H. Luke Shaefer, the authors of a new book entitled “$2.00 a Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America“, there are 1.5 million “ultrapoor” households in the United States that live on less than two dollars a day. That number has doubled since 1996.
#19 46 million Americans use food banks each year, and lines start forming at some U.S. food banks as early as 6:30 in the morning because people want to get something before the food supplies run out.
#20 The number of homeless children in the U.S. has increased by 60 percentover the past six years.
#21 According to Poverty USA, 1.6 million American children slept in a homeless shelter or some other form of emergency housing last year.
#22 The median net worth of families in the United States was $137, 955 in 2007. Today, it is just $82,756.
Also check out Alex Jones’ analysis of the president’s first tasteless Scalia joke, uttered during his National Governors Association speech.
Infowars runs down the latest details behind Associate Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia’s mysterious death, including revelations that the secret hunting club he was part of spun out of the Bohemian grove.
In fact, the Hollywood violent thriller “No Country for Old Men” was partially filmed at the Cibolo Creek Ranch where Scalia is said to have died in his sleep from “natural causes,” reportedly a heart attack, sometime during the evening of Friday, February 12.
Scalia flew to the ranch’s private airport on a charter, arriving around noon on Friday.
He was participating in a long Presidents’ Day weekend blue quail hunting vacation courtesy of ranch owner, Houston billionaire John B. Poindexter.
Poindexter comped Scalia for the vacation as a “gift” for Scalia’s favorable ruling on an age discrimination case brought against Poindexter’s company last year.
Poindexter told The Washington Post that he holds three such outings each year and it is a “tradition” that invited guests stay at the ranch for free.
Scalia was one of 36 fully comped guests staying at the ranch over Valentine’s Day. Scalia was accompanied by a friend from Washington whose identity remains unknown.
The identities of the other guests staying at the ranch with Scalia has also remained a closely-guarded secret.
Scalia’s body was viewed by Poindexter, Presidio County Sheriff Danny Dominguez, and U.S. Marshal Ken Roberts.
A U.S. Border Patrol car also arrived at the scene. Dominguez is a 20-year incumbent.
His Democratic primary challenger in the upcoming primary election, former deputy sheriff Caesar Melendez, says Dominguez is incompetent and owned-and-operated by special interests in the county.
Melendez said Dominguez violated all standard Presidio County procedures in the death of Scalia. Scalia’s room was not quarantined as a potential crime scene nor was an in-person inquest conducted.
Melendez said even dead Mexican migrants found in the desert received better treatment than Scalia. One such death last year not only involved an autopsy but the area where the migrant’s body was found was secured as a potential crime scene.
Melendez said that sudden or unattended deaths like that of Scalia are always treated as homicides until deemed otherwise from collected evidence, including, at a minimum, an eyes-on inquest. Scalia’s family requested that no autopsy be performed but Texas law requires a legitimate medical inquest, which was not conducted in Scalia’s case.
Dominguez called Presidio County judge Cinderela Guevara, who is also an elected cog in the corrupt country machine, and informed her of Scalia’s apparent death from natural causes.
Guevara was contacted after two justices of the peace were contacted to conduct an inquest into Scalia’s death.
David Beebe, JP for county precinct 1, said he was busy at a campaign forum in neighboring Brewster County. Juanita Bishop, JP for county precinct 2, said she was at a job-related event in Fort Stockton, 120 miles away from the ranch.
Beebe said there was only one funeral home in the area, Alpine Funeral Home in Alpine, Texas, a one hour drive from the ranch.
However, Melendez said there is one in Marfa, a half hour drive from the ranch, which can also embalm bodies.
Scalia’s body was inexplicably transported to El Paso in an Alpine Funeral Home hearse. El Paso is a three-and-a-half hour drive from the Cibolo Creek resort. Scalia was embalmed at El Paso’s Sunset Funeral Home and flown out of El Paso International Airport on a private plane to Washington, DC.
The funeral director who embalmed Scalia said it is standard procedure to flush bodily fluids, including blood and urine, into the municipal sewage system. Sheriff candidate Melendez said that is not the normal procedure in Presidio County where Scalia died because with a high water table there is always the potential for contamination from sewage system leeching potentially dangerous fluids into the fresh water supply.
Arid desert counties like Presidio take clean water seriously. Someone obviously wanted Scalia moved out of Presidio County to El Paso where there would be no trace of blood or other bodily fluids that could have later yielded clues as to what drugs were in his system when he died.
Wayne Madsen is an investigative journalist who consistently exposes cover-ups from deep within the government. Want to be the first to learn the latest scandal? Go to WayneMadsenReport.com subscribe today!
“The probability of a certain set of circumstances coming together in a meaningful (or tragic) way is so low that it simply cannot be considered mere coincidence.” ― V.C. King
The Loss of our Greatest Justice
From the very instant we heard Justice Scalia had died, we had our suspicions. Justice Scalia was a pro-life, Christian Constitutionalist who was also an originalist. He was what all justices on the high court should be.
Cibolo Creek Ranch owner, John Poindexter’s account of how Scalia was found, is beginning to add fuel to the fire as he told the press that Scalia was discovered with “a pillow over his head.” That certainly sounds strange to me, and obviously to many others.
Scalia was just the latest newsworthy guest to visit the celebrity hideaway that covers 30,000 acres near the Chinati Mountains. Mick Jagger, Julia Roberts and Tommy Lee Jones have also partaken of its scenic vistas and luxury accommodations. The Justice was there with several other friends for a short weekend. He was scheduled to return home on Sunday.
Established in 1857 by Milton Faver, known as the first Texas cattle baron west of the Pecos, the ranch retains 19th Century constructions, including “El Fortin de Cibolo,” a primitive fort designed to protect settlers from Apaches.
Apparently the judge’s physician was traveling with him among other friends. When the judge didn’t awaken at 8:30 Saturday morning, Poindexter went out for several hours. He returned and there was still no response from Judge Scalia’s room. Poindexter found him and was the one who made the appropriate calls.
Presidio County Judge Cinderela Guevara told WFAA news on Sunday that Scalia had likely died from a heart attack, but she did so without looking at the body. The county judge stated that his death was most likely a heart attack. However, an autopsy was not ordered or performed. Before Judge Scalia’s body was flown home, he was embalmed. This is the law in Texas as well as many other states, before a body can be taken outside the state.
The photo is Barack Obama shaking hands with John Poindexter, the Texas millionaire businessman also noted for being a donor to the Democrat Party, and who also received an award from Barack Obama related to his military service in Vietnam.
Poindexter is the owner of the Cibolo Creek Ranch where Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia was found dead earlier this week.
Remember too that in 2014, Judge Scalia ripped into Obama’s self-interested use of executive power. Link
Schumer Flashback – 2007
Almost immediately after Scalia’s death was announced Saturday evening, Republican lawmakers and presidential candidates began arguing the appointment of his successor should be left to the next president. Democratic Senator Charles Schumer lamented this outlook as pure obstructionism.
Funny, because in 2007, Schumer advocated doing the same exact thing if any additional Supreme Court vacancies opened under former President George W. Bush. How opinions change when the shoe is on the other foot! Link
“You know, the kind of obstructionism that [Senate Majority Leader] Mitch McConnell ‘s talking about, he’s hearkening back to his old days,” Schumer said, according to The Hill. McConnell has said, “The American people should have a voice in the selection of their next Supreme Court justice. Therefore, this vacancy should not be filled until we have a new president.”
Notice he said, “should not,” which means he can easily change. Had he said “will not,” I’d be a bit more convinced, just a bit. Unfortunately, I haven’t much faith in the despicable GOPe sellout, Mitch McConnell.
The Court Count
The Court was 5 to 4 with fair conservatives, Scalia being the most prominent and finest Constitutional scholar. Should Obama actually appoint another justice, it will mean decades of draconian liberal (read communist) decisions.
I hate to think of what another Obama appointee could do to this country and our Constitution…Federal takeover of the police (a la Nazi Germany), elimination of the Second Amendment, radicalized school discipline according to race, chipping away at the Bill of Rights. The federal overreach would be totally out of control.
Attorney General Loretta Lynch has been mentioned as one appointee. According to the Huffington Post, CNN legal analyst and New Yorker writer Jeffrey Toobin has his money on Judge Sri Srinivasan of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit. Obama fought to appoint the 47-year-old native of India to a seat on the D.C. Circuit court, and the Senate unanimously confirmed him in 2013. Srinivasan has joined liberal colleagues on the court in several cases, and seems to be of a similar ideological bent as Justices Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan.
The latest name mentioned is Elizabeth Warren. Link
Here is what Donald Trump said when asked about Scalia’s replacement:
“If I were president now, I would certainly want to try and nominate a justice, and I’m sure that, frankly, I’m absolutely sure that President Obama will try and do it. I hope that our Senate is going to be able to…do something about it. This is a tremendous blow to conservatism, a tremendous blow, frankly, to our country.”
“I think it’s up to Mitch McConnell and everybody else to stop it. It’s called, delay, delay delay.”
He is absolutely right, and if the American people ignore this, it will be at our own peril. Lord have mercy!
Former Presidio Co. Deputy Caesar Melendez, who said he was fired after attempting to turn in a fellow deputy for tampering with evidence, revealed that Sheriff Danny Dominguez was “not that well-experienced” in handling dead bodies.
“I was usually the person he would look to to take care of issues like that,” he said, adding that more should have been done during the Scalia investigation. “I wish I could have been there so I could it for myself, but I honestly don’t think enough was done.”
“From what I understand, apparently [Scalia’s] clothing had no wrinkles in them, so of course he lied still, and the pillow should have been taken in as evidence if it was used to smother him, I’m just speculating here, for any saliva, blood or anything like that on the pillow itself.”
“An autopsy would have actually shown minute bruising under a microscope around the lip area if force was applied to the face,” the former deputy added.
Melendez also said it was easy for him to get an autopsy done on a body when he requested one.
“If I asked the judge for one, I would get it,” he said.
The former deputy also stated the department had a pattern of irregular procedures during investigations and that he was fired for speaking out about it.
“Apparently I was terminated back in 2015 and that was due to the fact I was turning in one of the deputies for tampering with evidence,” he revealed. “I was filing a case against a man for being in possession of a handgun while he was under a protective order and according to state law, he cannot be in possession of one, and this was in reference to family violence.”
The sheriff reportedly wanted to Melendez to turn the gun over to him so he could give it back to the suspect.
“I refused to do so, so he asked me to log it in as evidence and as I was doing that, I took photos of all the log books and everything, and next thing I know Deputy Garcia is handing me some paperwork saying the District Attorney Rod Ponton dropped the charges, which he had no involvement in this case,” Melendez said. “The weapon was returned to the suspect’s son, who he himself was a felon, so the weapon should have never been given to him to begin with.”
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MARFA, Tex. — Inside the cloistered chambers of the Supreme Court, Justice Antonin Scalia’s days were highly regulated and predictable. He met with clerks, wrote opinions and appeared for arguments in the august courtroom on a schedule set months in advance.
Yet as details of his sudden death trickled in Sunday, it appeared that the hours afterward were anything but orderly. The man known for his elegant legal opinions and profound intellect was found dead in his room at a hunting resort by a ranch owner.
It then took hours for authorities in remote West Texas to find a justice of the peace, officials said Sunday. When they did, she pronounced Scalia dead of natural causes without seeing the body and decided not to order an autopsy. A second justice of the peace, who was called but couldn’t get to Scalia’s body in time, said she would have ordered an autopsy.
“If it had been me . . . I would want to know,” Juanita Bishop, a justice of the peace in Presidio, Tex., told The Washington Post in an interview Sunday about the chaotic hours after Scalia’s death at the Cibolo Creek Ranch, a luxury compound less than an hour from the Mexican border and about 40 miles south of Marfa.
The U.S. Marshals Service has not issued a statement about the events surrounding the death on Saturday of Scalia, who had recently returned from a trip to the Far East, where his last public event was a book signing in Hong Kong. And as official Washington tried to process what the justice’s death means for politics and the law, some details of his final hours remained opaque.
As late as Sunday afternoon, there were conflicting reports about whether an autopsy would be performed, though officials later said Scalia’s body was being embalmed and there would be no autopsy. One report, by WFAA-TV in Dallas, said the death certificate would show the cause of the death was a heart attack.
One thing was clear: Scalia had died in his element, doing what he loved at the ranch that has played host to movie stars and European royalty and is famous for bird hunts and bigger game, such as bison and mountain lions.
“Other than being with his family or in church, there’s no place he’d rather be than on a hunt,” said Houston lawyer Mark Lanier, who accompanied Scalia on hunting trips seeking wild boar, deer and even alligators. Lanier said he first learned of Scalia’s love for hunting through former Supreme Court justice Sandra Day O’Connor. “He’ll do anything if you take him hunting,” Lanier recalled O’Connor saying.
John Poindexter, who owns the ranch, said Sunday that Scalia and a friend arrived Friday by chartered aircraft after first traveling to Houston, accompanied by U.S. marshals. About 35 people were in his party; Poindexter declined to name the other guests.
Scalia went out with the group that day to hunt blue quail, but “he did not exert himself. He got out of the hunting vehicle, and walked around some,’’ Poindexter said.
Although law enforcement officials said Scalia left a private party that night, attended by about 40 people, to go to bed early, Poindexter said that didn’t seem unusual. All of the guests were tired from traveling to the remote ranch and the day’s other activities, with everyone going to bed by 10 p.m., he said.
According to law enforcement officials, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because they were not authorized spokespeople, Scalia did not show up for breakfast the next morning. People at first thought he might be sleeping in, but they eventually grew concerned, the officials said.
Poindexter and one other person knocked on his room door, didn’t get an answer, and went inside.
“Everything was in perfect order. He was in his pajamas, peacefully, in bed,” Poindexter said, adding that Scalia had been his usual affable self at the ranch and that “his behavior was entirely natural and normal.’’
After emergency personnel and officials from the U.S. Marshals Service were called to the scene, two local judges who also serve as justices of the peace were called, Presidio County Judge Cinderela Guevara said in an interview Sunday. Both were out of town, she said — not unusual in a remote region where municipalities are spread far apart.
Guevara also was out of town, but she said she declared Scalia dead based on information provided by officials at the scene, citing Texas laws that allow a justice of the peace to declare someone dead without seeing the body.
Guevara declined to comment further to The Post, but told WFAA that Scalia’s death certificate would list myocardial infarction — a heart attack — as the official cause of death.
Chris Lujan, manager of the Sunset Funeral Home in El Paso, where Scalia was taken, did not question the television report but said he had not seen paperwork confirming the cause of death. Other officials declined to comment.
Guevara told the station that she planned to drive to the ranch but changed her mind when a U.S. marshal told her by phone: “It’s not necessary for you to come, judge. If you’re asking for an autopsy, that’s what we need to clarify.”
Guevara said she asked the Marshals whether there were “any signs of foul play. And they said, ‘Absolutely not,’ ” she told the station. After talking with Scalia’s personal physician, she said, she pronounced him dead and declined to order an inquest.
Scalia’s body was taken to the Sunset Funeral Home by a procession of about 20 law enforcement officers. It arrived there about 2:30 a.m. Sunday, according to Lujan. The funeral home is about 31/2 hours from the ranch where Scalia died.
Lujan said that Scalia’s family did not request an autopsy and that the body is being prepared for the funeral and will be transported back to Washington on Monday. It is under guard by six law enforcement officials, including U.S. marshals and Texas state troopers, Lujan said.
“An autopsy was declined at about 3:30 a.m.,” Lujan said. “The justice of the peace said there was no indication of foul play and that he died in his sleep from natural causes.”
Funeral arrangements for Scalia were unclear Sunday.
Straub and Moravec, in Marfa, Tex., are freelance writers. Horwitz and Markon reported from Washington. Alice Crites and Robert Barnes in Washington contributed to his report.
Scalia’s death upends court dynamics.
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Scalia: A brilliant mind, and a frequent critic of civil rights.
“We are one justice away from a Supreme Court that would harm our Second Amendment rights,” said the NRA.
The organization plans to spend over $20 million on the upcoming election to push gun rights and is concerned about the ages of court justices, believing the the next president will have a chance at choosing the four judges.
“In my view, all the chips are on the table in this election because the impact is who gets the Supreme Court,” said the NRA’s chief, Allan D. Cors in an interview with Secrets this month.
The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State. ratified #11 affects 10
The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;—The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;—The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.14 —The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. ratified #12 affects 8
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. affects 11
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ratified #13
1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
2: Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-oneyears of age,15 and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. affects 2
3: No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
4: The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
5: The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. ratified #14
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ratified #15
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionmentamong the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. ratified #16 affects 2
1: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for sixyears; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures. affects 3
2: When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issuewrits of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. affects 4
3: This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. ratified #17
1: After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
2: The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
3: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. ratified #18
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ratified #19
1: The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin. affects 5
3: If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified. affects 9 affects 14
4: The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them. affects 9
5: Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.
6: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures ofthree-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission. ratified #20
2: The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
3: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. ratified #21
1: No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.
2: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures ofthree-fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its submission to the states by the Congress. ratified #22
1: The District constituting the seat of government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a state, but in no event more than the least populous state; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the states, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a state; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.
2: The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ratified #23
1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.
2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ratified #24
1: In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
2: Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
3: Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.
4: Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, withintwenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office. ratified #25
2: The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ratified #26
No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take effect until an election of Representatives shall have intervened. ratified #27
Note 1: This text of the Constitution follows the engrossed copy signed by Gen. Washington and the deputies from 12 States. The arabic numerals preceding the paragraphs designate Clauses, and were not printed (but are referred to) in the original and have no reference to footnotes that appear as small superior figures (superscripts). ratification
Note 2: The part of Article 1 Section 2 Clause 3 relating to the mode of apportionment of representatives among the several States has been affected by Amendment XIV Section 2, and as to taxes on incomes without apportionment by Amendment XVI.
Note 12: The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States are known as the Bill of Rights
Note 13: The Bill of Rights only had ten of the twelve articles ratified and these were then renumbered. Of the others only the13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th articles of amendment had numbers assigned to them at the time of ratification.